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Fluids

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Fluids

Post Number: #1  Postby Jessica » October 22nd, 2013, 2:41 pm

Mass Density
The mass density ρ is the mass m of a substance divided by its volume V:


SI Unit: kg / m3

Mass Densities of Common Substances
Image
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Re: Fluids

Post Number: #2  Postby Filip » October 23rd, 2013, 12:03 pm

Pressure in fluids (liquids and gases)

Pressure is scalar measure which indicates the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed.

SI Unit: Pascal (Pa)

P=ρ·g·h

Where P is pressure
ρ (rho) is density (kg·m-3)
g is acceleration of free fall (On Earth 9.81 m·s-2)
h is height of liquid column or depth within a substance (m)

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Re: Fluids

Post Number: #3  Postby Filip » October 23rd, 2013, 12:09 pm

Buoyancy

an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

SI Unit: Newton (N)

B=ρ·g·V

Where ρ (Rho) is density of surrounding fluid. (kg·m-3)
g is acceleration of free fall (On Earth 9.81 m·s-2)
V is volume of submerged part of body (m3)
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Re: Fluids

Post Number: #4  Postby Jessica » November 19th, 2013, 9:00 pm

Pascal's Principle
Any change in the pressure applied to a completely enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid and the enclosing walls.
Image

Archimedes' Principle
An object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, experiences an upward buoyant force with magnitude equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
Image
Image




Fluids in motion
Laminar flow: steady
    Fluid velocity is approximately constant (with time) and predictable at each point
Laminar flow: unsteady
    Fluid velocity is rapidly varying with time (and unpredictably from point to point)
Non-viscous flow: Neighboring fluid layers move independently
Viscous flow: Neighboring fluid layers experience mutual friction
Compressible flow: True for most gases (volume can change)
Incompressible flow: True for most liquids (volume cannot change)
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Re: Fluids

Post Number: #5  Postby Jessica » December 9th, 2013, 6:39 pm

Equation of Continuity
The mass flow rate (ρAv) has the same value at every position along a tube that has a single entry and a single exit point for fluid flow. For two positions along such a tube
Image

Image


Bernoulli's Equation
In the steady flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid of density ρ, the pressure P, the fluid speed v, and the elevation y at any two points (1 and 2) are related by
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Re: Fluids

Post Number: #6  Postby Jessica » December 9th, 2013, 6:44 pm

The force needed to move a layer of viscous fluid is:
Image



Poiseuille's law
A fluid whose viscosity is η, flowing through a pipe of radius R and length L, has a volume flow rate Q given by
Image
Solving for P[sub]1[/sub]:
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