Welcome

Please register to have access to more features!

It is highly recommended that you have Javascript enabled; many features will not work unless you do. The recommended browsers are Firefox and Chrome; the board is also NOT mobile-friendly.

Please invite your friends!

If you were referred by someone (ex. me, Jessica) please put their username in the referral box on the registration page. Ask them if you don't know their username.

If you are visiting for TESTING PURPOSES ONLY, this is the test account information:


Username:
Test
Password: test123



Select a forum to post in:

♫ ♬ Music ♪ ♩

Miscellaneous topics

Moderators: Jessica, Teachers

♫ ♬ Music ♪ ♩

Post Number: #1  Postby Jessica » May 20th, 2014, 1:20 pm

Elements of Music

terms:
Music - an art based on the organization of sounds in time

Frequency – speed of a sound’s vibrations, measured in cycles per second

Definite pitch – has a specific frequency

Indefinite pitch – produced by irregular vibrations

Interval - “Distance” in pitch between any two tones.

Octave - Interval between two tones in which the higher tone has twice the frequency of the lower tone.

Dynamics - Degrees of loudness or softness in music
    pianissimo (very soft) - Image
    piano (soft) - Image
    mezzo piano (moderately soft) - Image
    mezzo forte (moderately loud) - Image
    forte (loud) - Image
    fortissimo (very loud) - Image

    Gradual change in dynamics:
      Image decrescendo or diminuendo
      Image crescendo

    Like many elements of music, a dynamic indication is not absolutely precise. A tone has a dynamic level—is soft or loud—in relation to other tones around it. The loudest sound of a single violin is tiny compared with the loudest sound of an entire orchestra, and even tinier compared with an amplified rock group. But it can be considered fortissimo (very loud) within its own context.

Accent - Emphasis of a note, which may result from its being louder, longer, or higher in pitch than the notes near it.

Timbre - Quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another
    described by words such as bright, dark, brilliant, mellow, and rich.

    Changes in tone color create variety and contrast: for example, the same melody will have different expressive effects when it is played by one instrument and then another, or a new tone color may be used to highlight a new melody. Tone colors also build a sense of continuity; it is easier to recognize the return of a melody when the same instruments play it each time. Specific instruments can reinforce a melody's emotional impact—in fact, composers often create a melody with a particular instrument's tone color in mind.

Meter – organization of beats into regular groups

Downbeat – first, or stressed, beat of a measure

Tempo – basic pace of the music
    largo - very slow, broad
    grave - very slow, solemn
    adagio - slow
    andante - moderately slow, a walking pace
    moderato - moderate
    allegretto - moderately fast
    allegro - fast
    vivace - lively
    presto - very fast
    prestissimo - as fast as possible

Tonic – central tone of a melody or larger piece of music. When a piece is in the key of C major, for example, C is the keynote

Modulation – shift from one key to another within the same piece

Melodic contour –

Sequence – the immediate repetition of a melodic pattern on a higher or lower pitch

Complete cadence – definite resting place, giving a sense of finality, at the end of a phrase of a melody

Incomplete cadence – inconclusive resting point at the end of a phrase, which sets up expectations for the following phrase

Consonance – tone combination that is stable and restful

Dissonance – tone combination that is unstable and tense

Harmonic progression – series of chords

Monophonic texture – single melodic line without accompaniment

Homophonic texture – term describing music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords

Polyphonic texture – performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time

Binary form – form that can be represented as statement (A) and counterstatement (B)

Ternary form – form that can be represented as statement (A); contrast (B); return of statement (A)
  • 0

User avatar
Jessica
Board Owner
Topic Author

Founder
Sapphire
Sapphire
 
8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership
 
Posts: 3,469
Topics: 1,244
Articles: 30
Joined: December 22nd, 2010, 8:04 pm
Local time: October 19th, 2019, 11:47 pm
Last Visit: Online
Location: Pennsylvania
Gender: Female
Cash on hand: 4,767.32
Bank: 138,647.08
Reputation: 148
Medals: 20
#1: July 2012 1st Place (1) R-Contest #1 First Place (1) Best staff member 2013 (1) Easter Egg Hunt 2013 (1) Graphic Drawing Participant (1) 1 Year (1) 2 Years (1) 3 Years (1) 4 Years (1) 5 Years (1)
6 Years (1) 7 Years (1) 8 Years (1) Founder (1) Highest Rep (1) Referrer (1) Top poster (1) Facebook group (1) Pin-Board (1) Article Author (1)
Referrals: 27
Blog: View Blog (478)
Subject(s): Chinese, Math
Global Moderator
Admin
Moderator

Re: ♫ ♬ Music ♪ ♩

Post Number: #2  Postby Jessica » May 24th, 2014, 11:34 am

What is needed to produce sound? a vibration of an object

The four main properties of musical sounds.

The four basic voice ranges (from highest to lowest).

The six instrument categories. (Including which are parts of the typical orchestra. Also, be prepared to name several instruments in each category.)
    string (guitar, violin)
    woodwind (flute, clarinet)
    brass (trumpet, trombone)
    percussion (bass drum, cymbals)
    keyboard (organ, piano)
    electronic (synthesizer)

    Image

How is pitch notated?

How is rhythm notated?

What is the significance of the Tonic/Dominant relationship?
  • 0

User avatar
Jessica
Board Owner
Topic Author

Founder
Sapphire
Sapphire
 
8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership
 
Posts: 3,469
Topics: 1,244
Articles: 30
Joined: December 22nd, 2010, 8:04 pm
Local time: October 19th, 2019, 11:47 pm
Last Visit: Online
Location: Pennsylvania
Gender: Female
Cash on hand: 4,767.32
Bank: 138,647.08
Reputation: 148
Medals: 20
#1: July 2012 1st Place (1) R-Contest #1 First Place (1) Best staff member 2013 (1) Easter Egg Hunt 2013 (1) Graphic Drawing Participant (1) 1 Year (1) 2 Years (1) 3 Years (1) 4 Years (1) 5 Years (1)
6 Years (1) 7 Years (1) 8 Years (1) Founder (1) Highest Rep (1) Referrer (1) Top poster (1) Facebook group (1) Pin-Board (1) Article Author (1)
Referrals: 27
Blog: View Blog (478)
Subject(s): Chinese, Math
Global Moderator
Admin
Moderator

Re: ♫ ♬ Music ♪ ♩

Post Number: #3  Postby Jessica » May 24th, 2014, 12:31 pm

String Instruments
The violin, viola, cello (violoncello), and double bass (sometimes called simply a bass) form the symphony orchestra's string section. They vary in tone color as well as in size and range: the violin is the smallest and has the highest range; the double bass is the largest and has the lowest range. For symphonic music the strings are usually played with a bow, a slightly curved stick strung tightly with horsehair. Symphonic strings also may be plucked with the finger.

Of all the instrumental groups, the strings have the greatest versatility and expressive range. They produce many tone colors and have wide ranges of pitch and dynamics. String players can produce tones that are brilliant and rapid or slow and throbbing; they can control tone as subtly as a singer. Orchestral works tend to rely more on the strings than on any other group. Even with their differing tone colors, the four string instruments blend beautifully. Here it will be helpful to consider the construction and tone production of the string instruments; the violin can represent the entire family.

The hollow wooden body of the violin supports four strings made of gut or wire. The strings stretch, under tension, from a tailpiece on one end over a wooden bridge to the other end, where they are fastened around wooden pegs. The bridge holds the strings away from the fingerboard so that they can vibrate freely; the bridge also transmits the strings' vibrations to the body, which amplifies and colors the tone. Each string is tuned to a different pitch by tightening or loosening the pegs. (The greater the tension, the higher the pitch.)

The musician makes a string vibrate by drawing the bow across it with the right hand. The speed and pressure of the bow stroke control the dynamics and tone color of the sound produced. Pitch is controlled by the musician's left hand. By pressing a string against the fingerboard, the player varies the length of its vibrating portion and so changes its pitch. This is called stopping a string (because the vibrations are stopped at a certain point along the string's length). Thus, a range of pitches can be drawn from each of the four strings.

Basically the viola, cello, and double bass are made in the same manner and produce sound by similar means. How the string instruments are played—what string performance techniques are used—determines which of many musical effects they will produce. The most frequently used techniques are listed here:

Pizzicato (plucked string): The musician plucks the string, usually with a finger of the right hand. In jazz, the double bass is played mainly as a plucked instrument, rather than being bowed.

Double stop (two notes at once): By drawing the bow across two strings, a string player can sound two notes at once. And by rotating the bow rapidly across three strings (triple stop) or four strings (quadruple stop), three or four notes can be sounded almost—but not quite—together.
  • 0

User avatar
Jessica
Board Owner
Topic Author

Founder
Sapphire
Sapphire
 
8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership
 
Posts: 3,469
Topics: 1,244
Articles: 30
Joined: December 22nd, 2010, 8:04 pm
Local time: October 19th, 2019, 11:47 pm
Last Visit: Online
Location: Pennsylvania
Gender: Female
Cash on hand: 4,767.32
Bank: 138,647.08
Reputation: 148
Medals: 20
#1: July 2012 1st Place (1) R-Contest #1 First Place (1) Best staff member 2013 (1) Easter Egg Hunt 2013 (1) Graphic Drawing Participant (1) 1 Year (1) 2 Years (1) 3 Years (1) 4 Years (1) 5 Years (1)
6 Years (1) 7 Years (1) 8 Years (1) Founder (1) Highest Rep (1) Referrer (1) Top poster (1) Facebook group (1) Pin-Board (1) Article Author (1)
Referrals: 27
Blog: View Blog (478)
Subject(s): Chinese, Math
Global Moderator
Admin
Moderator

Re: ♫ ♬ Music ♪ ♩

Post Number: #4  Postby Jessica » July 30th, 2014, 9:40 pm

The Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque
Gregorian chant – Melodies set to sacred Latin texts, sung without accompaniment; Gregorian chant was the official music of the Roman Catholic Church

Organum – Medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines

Cantus Firmus – chant

Ars Nova – A term used by musical theorists to describe the profound stylistic changes of Italian and French music in the fourteenth century

Mass Ordinary – Roman Catholic Church texts that remain the same from day to day throughout most of the year: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei

Word Painting – Musical representation of specific poetic images—for example, a falling melodic line to accompany the word descending—often found in Renaissance and baroque music

Mass – Sacred choral composition made up of five sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei

Motet – Polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass; one of the two main forms of sacred Renaissance music

Doctrine of Affections – Theory that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions

Terraced Dynamics – Abrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levels; characteristic of baroque music

Movement – Piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition

Concerto Grosso – Composition for several instrumental soloists and small orchestra; common in late baroque music

Ritornello form – Compositional form usually employed in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritornello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material

Fugue – Polyphonic composition based on one main theme, or subject

Exposition – First section of a sonata-form movement, which sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key; and between the first theme (or group of themes) and the second theme (or group of themes)

Suite – In baroque music, a set of dance-inspired movements all written in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character

Cantata – Composition in several movements, usually written for chorus, one or more vocal soloists, and instrumental ensemble. The church cantata for the Lutheran service in Germany during the baroque period often includes chorales

Opera – Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery

Oratorio – Large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative text, but without acting, scenery, or costumes; often based on biblical stories

Aria – Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas

Recitative – Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria

Ostinato – obstinate or persistent bass
  • 0

User avatar
Jessica
Board Owner
Topic Author

Founder
Sapphire
Sapphire
 
8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership8 years of membership
 
Posts: 3,469
Topics: 1,244
Articles: 30
Joined: December 22nd, 2010, 8:04 pm
Local time: October 19th, 2019, 11:47 pm
Last Visit: Online
Location: Pennsylvania
Gender: Female
Cash on hand: 4,767.32
Bank: 138,647.08
Reputation: 148
Medals: 20
#1: July 2012 1st Place (1) R-Contest #1 First Place (1) Best staff member 2013 (1) Easter Egg Hunt 2013 (1) Graphic Drawing Participant (1) 1 Year (1) 2 Years (1) 3 Years (1) 4 Years (1) 5 Years (1)
6 Years (1) 7 Years (1) 8 Years (1) Founder (1) Highest Rep (1) Referrer (1) Top poster (1) Facebook group (1) Pin-Board (1) Article Author (1)
Referrals: 27
Blog: View Blog (478)
Subject(s): Chinese, Math
Global Moderator
Admin
Moderator


Return to Topics

Login  •  Register
cron
Reputation System ©'